Leukemia is a type of blood cancer that occurs as a result of abnormal production and immaturity of blood cells. This disease is a condition in which leukocytes (white blood cells) are affected, which are usually found in the bone marrow and are responsible for the formation of blood cells. Leukemia can affect areas where blood cells are found, such as the bone marrow, blood, lymph nodes, and other lymphoid tissues.

There are several types of leukemia, but the most common are acute leukemia and chronic leukemia. Acute leukemia is characterized by the presence of young (blastic) leukocytes that grow rapidly before completing the normal maturation process and accumulate, replacing healthy blood cells. Chronic leukemia is a condition in which the maturation process is somewhat more normal and immature leukocytes accumulate slowly.

Symptoms of leukemia can vary depending on the type and progression of the disease. In general, common symptoms include fatigue, pallor, recurrent infections, fever, weight loss, bone and joint pains, a tendency to bruise or bleeding, and swollen lymph nodes. However, these symptoms may also be associated with other diseases, so a detailed evaluation should be made by the doctor for a definitive diagnosis.

The exact cause of leukemia is not known, but some risk factors and triggers have been identified. These include genetic predisposition, exposure to radiation, exposure to certain chemicals or certain viruses, smoking, and certain genetic disorders. However, for most cases of leukemia, no clear cause can be identified.

The diagnosis of leukemia is made through a series of tests that include a thorough physical examination, blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, and imaging studies. Treatment can often include methods such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy, and bone marrow transplant. The treatment plan is determined depending on the type and stage of the disease and the general health status of the patient.
Treatment of patients suffering from leukemia can be complex and require a multidisciplinary approach. It is led by a team of oncologist (cancer specialist), hematologist (blood specialist), and other healthcare professionals. During the treatment process, patients should be followed regularly and blood tests and imaging studies should be performed.

Chemotherapy is a treatment method used to destroy or control leukemia cells. In this method, drugs are used to stop the growth of cancer cells or kill them by targeting rapidly dividing cells in the body. Radiotherapy, on the other hand, is a form of treatment applied to destroy cancer cells by using high-energy rays. Targeted therapy provides treatment by focusing on specific genetic or molecular targets found in cancer cells. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure used to replace leukemia-affected bone marrow with healthy bone marrow cells.

Early diagnosis of the disease and prompt initiation of treatment can significantly affect prognosis and treatment outcomes. It is important for patients to have regular check-ups, monitor their health status, and comply with treatment plans. In addition, the side effects of leukemia treatment should be considered and patients should be supported in this process.

While there is no sure way to protect against leukemia, it is possible to reduce some risk factors. Taking precautions such as avoiding harmful habits such as smoking, adopting a healthy lifestyle, and avoiding unnecessary exposure to radiation can help reduce the risk of leukemia. It’s also important to have regular checkups if you have risk factors such as certain genetic disorders or family history.

In conclusion, leukemia is a type of blood cancer in which blood cells are produced abnormally and do not mature. Diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of this disease require a multidisciplinary approach. Medical research and advances are developing promising new treatments and drugs for the treatment of leukemia. Early diagnosis, appropriate treatment planning and supporting patients are important in the fight against leukemia.